The cigarette was named some time in the 18th century: beggars in Seville began to pick from the ground the cigar ends left by the señoritos(“rich, young men”), wrapped the tobacco remains with paper and smoked them. A cigarette (French for”small cigar”) is a product consumed through smoking and manufactured out of cured and finely cut tobacco leaves and reconstituted tobacco, often combined with other additives, then rolled or stuffed into a paper-wrapped cylinder(generally less than 120 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter).
Rates of cigarette smoking vary widely. While rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in developed countries, their use continues to rise in undeveloped countries. While the assembly of cigarettes is straightforward, much focus is given to the creation of each of the components, in particular the tobacco blend, which may contain over 100 ingredients,many of them flavourants for the tobacco.
A key ingredient that makes cigarettes more addictive is the inclusion of reconstituted tobacco, which has additives to make nicotine more volatile as the cigarette burns.The process of blending gives the end product a consistent taste from batches of tobacco grown in different areas of a country that may change in flavour profile from year to year due to different environmental conditions.
Each cigarette’s tobacco blend is made mainly from the leaves of flue-cured brightleaf, burley tobacco, and oriental tobacco. The processing of brightleaf and burley tobaccos for tobacco leaf “strips” produces several by-products such as leaf stems, tobacco dust, and tobacco leaf pieces.The most common tobacco by-products include:
Improved stems (IS) Improved stems are rolled, flattened, and shredded then steamed Expanded (ES) are rolled, flattened, and shredded leaf stems that are expanded by being soaked in water and rapidly heated. Reconstituted leaf (RL) a paper-like material made from recycled tobacco fines, tobacco stems and “class tobacco”, which consists of tobacco particles less than 30 mesh in size. These are collected at any stage of tobacco processing. RL is made by extracting the soluble chemicals in the tobacco by-products, processing the leftover tobacco fibres from the extraction into a paper, and then reapplying the extracted materials in concentrated form onto the paper. Then ammonium additives are applied
Blended leaf (BL) a thin, dry sheet cast from a paste made with tobacco dust collected from tobacco stemming, finely milled burley-leaf stem, and pectin.Expanded tobacco- The tobacco is “puffed”, or expanded, by saturating it with supercritical carbon dioxide. This is used to produce light cigarettes. It has been shown that higher prices for cigarettes discourage smoking. Every 10 percent increase in the price of cigarettes reduced youth smoking by about seven percent and overall cigarette consumption by about four percent.
Approximately 5.5 trillion cigarettes are produced globally each year and are smoked by over 1.1 billion people or greater than one-sixth of the world population. Cigarettes are the most frequent source of fires in private homes. Mortality associated with smoking chiefly involves vascular, neoplastic, and respiratory diseases that can be caused by smoking.
Men born in 1900-1930 who smoked only cigarettes and continued smoking died on average about 10 years younger than lifelong non-smokers. Smoke, or any partially burnt organic matter, is carcinogenic (cancer-causing). The damage a continuing smoker does to their lungs can take up to 20 years before its physical manifestation in lung cancer.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) caused by smoking, known as tobacco disease, is a permanent, incurable reduction of pulmonary capacity characterized by shortness of breath, wheezing, persistent cough with sputum, and damage to the lungs, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. 50% of people who smoke long-term will die from a smoking-related condition.Lung cancer claims more lives than any other cancer and smoking causes 80% to 90% of those deaths.
Smoking is the number one preventable cause of death in the world. Smoking cessation will almost always lead to a longer and healthier life. Stopping in early adulthood can add up to 10 years of healthy life and stopping in one’s sixties can still add three years of healthy life
The immediate effects of smoking cessation include:
Within 20 minutes blood pressure returns to its normal level
After 8 hours oxygen levels return to normal
After 24 hours carbon monoxide levels in the lungs return to those of a non-smoker and the mucus begins to clear
After 48 hours nicotine leaves the body and tastebuds are improved
After 72 hours breathing becomes easier
After 2-12 weeks, circulation improves
After 5 years, the risk of heart attack falls to about half that of a smoker
After 10 years, the chance of lung cancer is almost the same as a non-smoker.
Research in Western countries has found that approximately 3-5% of quit attempts succeed using willpower alone.